Climate Change Leadership

Kevin Anderson is Uppsala University’s second holder of the Zennström Visiting Professorship in Climate Change Leadership. Kevin arrive to Uppsala in August 2016 and is carrying on the work initiated by the first Zennström professor Doreen Stabinsky: to establish a world-leading node in the area of climate change leadership, that will be unique, both in Sweden and internationally.


Latest News

Public talks and seminars

  • July 3rd, 4th & 5th: A number of public talks and seminars were held at the political week in Almedalen in Visby. More information here.
  • September 21st: The Gordon Goodman Memorial Lecture with Kevin Anderson. Watch recordning here: here.
  • September 27th: StandUp for Climate Change – Energy System Implications of the Paris Agreement. More information here.
    September 28th: Climate Change and Sustainability. More information here.

Uppsala University’s delegation to UN climate meeting COP23
The 2017 UN Climate Change Conference will take place 6-17 November in Bonn, Germany and will be presided over by the Government of Fiji. Uppsala University has status as observer organization and will be sending a delegation to the conference. More information here.

Massive Open Online Course in Climate Change Leadership and new animation ‘Living within our carbon budget’
CEMUS at Uppsala University has created a Massive Open Online Course on Climate Change Leadership which ran for the second time in April-May 2017. Watch the trailer and find out more about the course at:


Trailer                                                                                   Living within our carbon budget – an animation

The trouble with negative emissions – Article in Science by Kevin Anderson
The Paris Agreement on climate change and the carbon-reduction plans of many governments (including Sweden) are unwittingly reliant on unproven technologies to suck hundreds of billions of tonnes of carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. On october 14, 2016 the journal Science published a Perspective co-written by Kevin Anderson and Glen Peters, in which the scale and widespread reliance on ‘negative emissions technologies’ is revealed.
Read the whole article here:
And more on Uppsala University’s website.


A World-Leading Node in Climate Change Leadership

With a 10-year series of visiting professorships, Zennström Philanthropies and Uppsala University are enabling the development of an enviromment that will directly address some of the most challenging questions that climate change poses to humanity, develop novel solutions, and enable transformative change in the nexus of science, policy and innovation. The professors will in distinct but mutually reinforcing ways, inspire new research and education and catalyze the much needed action toward a more sustainable future.

Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development serves as an enabling platform to fully draw upon the breadth of Uppsala University, the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, as well as other relevant partners and stakeholders at the local, national and international levels. Evidence and lessons generated by knowledge co-production between academia and society at large, are drawn on to both enact change and develop innovative approaches for effective and just climate change leadership.

Creating a student-led platform for engagement on climate change in Uppsala
bonn-delegationSprung out of the engagement and collaboration between students and faculty from Uppsala university and SLU that attended COP21, the Uppsala Climate Platform aims to encourage and facilitate engagement on climate change in Uppsala. The platform has recently prepared students to represent Uppsala University at the UN climate meeting in Bonn in May, and are planning a trip to COP23 in Bonn in the fall, and much more. For more information and to see their reports from the latest climate negotiations visit and to get involved contact the platform at or visit their website.


Kevin Anderson – Zennström Visiting Professor 2016-

Anderson-Lo-Res-21 Kevin Anderson is one of the leading climate scientists in the U.K. He is Professor of Energy and Climate Change at the University of Manchester and Deputy Director at the renowned Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. Kevin is a well-known and established researcher within climate change science who engages frequently with policy-makers, the private sector, civil society as well as the media. He has pioneered research on carbon budgets and pathways to acceptable mitigation levels. His work on the technical, social and economic interactions involved in the transformation of energy systems and the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, address questions at the core of the professorship’s theme. Kevin is a prominent thinker, writer and communicator who will build on and expand the work of the first visiting professor in climate change leadership, Doreen Stabinsky.

Doreen Stabinsky – Zennström Visiting Professor 2015-2016

DS_theo-300x261Doreen Stabinsky is Professor of Global Environmental Politics at the
College of the Atlantic in Bar Harbor, Maine. Her research, teaching, and writing concern the impacts of climate change, particularly on agriculture and global food security. She also serves as advisor to various governments and international environmental organisations, and has a large international network of collaborators. Doreen stresses the central role that education must play in addressing the growing challenges of climate change and is known for her ability to strengthen young people’s capacity to contribute to a better world. The fact that the focus of the professorship itself was inspired by, and emerged from a student-led course on Climate Change Leadership at CEMUS, makes Doreen a very fitting first holder of the Zennström Visiting Professorship.


Zennström Philanthropies

The professorship is made possible by an earlier donation to Uppsala University by the entrepreneur Niklas Zennström. Zennström, an alumni of Uppsala University and the co-founder of Skype, Kazaa, Joos and other companies, is currently running his own investment firm, Atomico, which invests in innovative technology companies. With a strong commitment to societal issues, through his organisation Zennström Philanthropies, he is contributing to various causes, including climate change research and other initiatives in the area of climate change.


Advisory Group

The Advisory Group for the Zennström Visiting Professorship in Climate Change Leadership oversees the long term development of the initiative with the main task of reviewing Expressions of Interest to the professorship. The Advisory group for 2016 had the following members:

Marika Edoff, Professor of Solid State Electronics, ssk Solar Cells, Uppsala University (Chair)
Annelie Ekblom, Senior Lecturer, Global Environmental History, Uppsala University
Niclas Hällström, Director, What Next Forum
Leif Kirsebom, Professor of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University
Bo Kjellén, Stockholm Environmental Institute
Margareta Krabbe, Senior Lecturer and Head, Biology Education Centre, Uppsala University
David Kronlid, Senior Lecturer, Department of Education and Swedesd, Uppsala University
Friederike May, Course Coordinator in Climate Change Leadership, CEMUS
Andrea Nightingale, Professor at the Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Lisa Plattner, Student Representative, CEMUS, Uppsala University
Anna Rutgersson, Professor of Meteorology, Uppsala University
Doreen Stabinsky, Zennström Visiting Professor 2015, Uppsala University
Isak Stoddard, Project Coordinator for the Climate Change Leadership Professorship
Veijo Pohjola, Professor of Glaciology, Uppsala University (ex. officio)
Fredrik Åkerblom, Representative of Fundraising Function at Uppsala University (ex. officio)

Upcoming events and getting involved

Wednesday September 27, 2017
Lecture with Kevin Anderson: StandUp for Climate Change – Energy System Implications of the Paris Agreement
15.15-17.00, Häggsalen, Ångströms Lab, Uppsala
More information here.

Thursday September 28, 2017
Lecture with Kevin Anderson: Sustainability and Climate Change
19.00-20.30, Missionskyrkan, Uppsala
More information and registration here.

November 6-17
COP23 in Bonn
Zennström professor Kevin Anderson and the climate change leadership node at CEMUS will alongside students and researcher from Uppsala University be present at the negotiations. More information on side-events organized or contributed to, will be announced shortly.

Thursday November 30
Klimatforum 2017 – politiken, tekniken och det personliga ansvaret
9.00-17.00, Münchenbryggeriet, Torkel Knutssonsgatan 2, Stockholm
Keynote presentation by Kevin Anderson and parallell session run by Isak Stoddard.
More information and registration here.

For the latest updates on climate change related news and activities in Uppsala and Beyond, visit and join our Climate Change Leadership Community.

If you want to learn more or get involved, please don’t hesitate to contact us:

Isak Stoddard
Coordinator and Acting Program Director

Kevin Anderson
Second Zennström Visiting Professor in Climate Change Leadership

Doreen Stabinsky
Zennström Visiting Professor in Climate Change Leadership 2015-2016


Climate Change Leadership and the Zennström Professorship in the Press

Kronprinsessan diskuterade hjärtefrågorna, Svensk Dam, September 21, 2017

I den akuta klimatkrisen väljer vi nu bort flyget, DN Debatt, 3 Juni, 2017

How scientists reacted to the US leaving the Paris Agreement, Nature, June 2, 2017

UUCCP Student delegation going to Bonn, UU press, May 5, 2017

Vår framtid bestäms av vad vi gör nu, Ingenjören, April 2017

Ökningen av universitetets flygresor fortsätter uppåt, ETC Uppsala, 31 mars, 2017

Flygande forskare – ett dilemma, Ergo, 27 mars, 2017

Intervju: Experten: Gotland kan utesluta bensindrivna bilar i framtiden, Sveriges Radio, 22 Februari, 2017

Intervju: Kevin Anderson, Zennström Visiting Professor in Climate Change Leadership at Uppsala University, Hagainitiativet, 10 February, 2017

Kevin Anderson: Flyget är inte moraliskt försvarbart, Klimatmagasinet Effekt, Nr 1/2017

New Professor in Climate Change Leadership, Techna #4, 2016

Professorn ska skapa lösningar för Parisavtalet, Arbetsvärlden, 13 December, 2016

Kevin Anderson: What we do now will change the climate forever, Klimatpodden, 2 December, 2016

The new climate change story must be one of rapid transition, The Guardian, 23 November, 2016

Oväntat trendbrott: Koldioxidutsläppen har stannat av, SVT Nyheter, 14 November, 2016

Forskare: Klimatmålen vilar på helt oprövad teknik, SVT Nyheter, 11 November, 2016.

Courage and Climate: An Interview with Kevin Anderson, Interview at CEMUS by students from the Newman Institute, 9 November, 2016

A huge problem still lurks at the heart of the Paris climate deal. New Scientist, November 2, 2016.

Interview with Kevin Anderson, The Wave of the Future, 27 October, 2016

Han lever som han lär. Universen, Uppsala Universitet, 25 Oktober, 2016.

Parisavtalet bygger på orealistiska förhoppningar på framtidens teknik, Nya Perspektiv, Uppsala Universitet, 21 oktober 2016

DN Debatt: Oansvarigt använda oprövad teknik för att rädda klimatet, DN, 21 Oktober, 2016

Ny klimatprofessor på plats Nya Horisonter, Nr 2 (sida 11), 2016.

We’re placing far too much hope in pulling carbon dioxide out of the air scientists warn, Washington Post, October 13, 2016

Professor Kevin Anderson on Negative Emissions, Carbon Brief, October 13, 2016

Klimatföreläsning drog storpublik, Universen #4, September 13, 2016

Snart premiär för öppna nätkurser, Universen #4, September 13, 2016

Pendlar mellan Uppsala och Manchester, Studio Ett, Sveriges Radio P1, September 12, 2016

A new professor of climate change leadership takes office, Perspectives, Uppsala University, September 7, 2016

Flygvägrande klimatprofil ny professor i Uppsala, SVT Rapport, Uppsala, September 1, 2016

So… “Fly or Die” is just a myth? The Travelling Scientist, KTH, Sep 2, 2016

Kevin Anderson is the new Zennström Visiting Professor in Climate Change Leadership, UU, August 22, 2016

Klimatmarsch lockade många, UNT, November 29, 2015

Uppsalastudenter på klimatmötet i Paris, Universen, #6 (sid 7), 2015

Uppsala University sends student delegation to Paris, UU, November 18, 2015

De springer för klimatet, UNT, November 16, 2015

Uppsalas första klimatprofessor, Doreen Stabinsky, Techna #3, 2015

Unik satsning på klimatledarskap, Universen, #2 (sid 17), 2015

Världens ögon riktas mot Paris, Nya Horisonter, #1 (sid 40), 2015

Hon ska sätta Uppsala på Klimatkartan, UNT 24, March 23, 2015

Invigning och föreläsning med Zennströms gästprofessor Doreen Stabinsky, UU press-release, March 21, 2015

Klimatfokus för nyrekryterad gästprofessor, Ergo, Feb 24, 2015

Hon Blir första Zennström Professorn, UNT, January 26, 2015

Zennströms Climate Professorship to Doreen Stabinsky, UU Press-release, January 26, 2015

Stabinsky named to visiting faculty post in Sweden, College of the Atlantic News, January 14, 2015


Past events

Thursday September 21, 2017
The Gordon Goodman Memorial Lecture with Kevin Anderson
13.30-17.00, Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences.
More information and recording available here: here.

Monday July 3-Wednesday July 5
Almedalen Seminars
A number of seminars were organized as a part of the program at Almedalen.
More information here:

Thursday June 1
Clean Tech Challenge for cities
Keynote by Kevin Anderson at the Clean tech Challenge for cities.
9-10, Aula at Polacksbacken, Uppsala
More information here:

Wednesday May 30
Beyond the climate of fear: a seminar on rapid decarbonisation
A talk by Kevin Anderson followed by a moderated panel discussion with Kevin Noone, Miriam Huitric, Will Steffen and Johan Rockström.
12.15-14.00, Stockholm Resilience Centre

Saturday May 27
Seminar on Swedish climate policy at Miljöpartiets partikongress
A talk by Kevin Anderson followed by a moderated panel discussion with Isabella Lövin.
19-21, Linköping

Thursday May 18
Uppsala Sustainability Festival
Two public seminars with Kevin Anderson and guests on the occasion of Uppsala Sustainability Festival
13.15-15.00 & 17.15-19.00, Uppsala City Library
More information about Uppsala Sustainability Festival here:

Wednesday May 3
Frukostmöte i Kollaboratoriet Uppsala – Klimatångest
Klimatångesten – vad har den att säga oss? Frukostmöte och samtal med idéhistoriker Julia Nordblad.
8-9, Kollaboratoriet Uppsala, Östra Ågatan 19, Uppsala
Mer information här:

Monday April 10
Mitigation – but how fast?
A public talk by Kevin Anderson
18.00-19.30, Lund City Library
For more information, please contact Tomas Björnsson (

Monday April 10
The carbon guilt of the sustainability scientist – should academics stop flying?
A seminar with Kevin Anderson
13.00-15.00, Wrangel Library, Biskopsgatan 5, Lund
For more information, please contact Wim Carton (

Tuesday April 4
Offical opening of the Uppsala Collaboratory and a public conversation
with Kevin Anderson, Bert de Vries, Josefin Wangel and others.
16.15-18.00, Uppsala Collaboratory, Östra Ågatan 19, Uppsala
More information and registration at:

Thursday March 30
Public Talk by Kevin Anderson in Swedish Parliament
Paris, 2°C and carbon budgets: understanding Sweden’s role in a low-carbon future
12.00-13.00, Swedish Parliament, Mittpoolen Seminar Room
More information and registration at:

Tuesday March 28
Should Scientiest stop flying? Decoupling Knowledge from Carbon in an age of climate change
10.00-12.00, Stockholm, KTH Campus
An open seminar co-hosted by KTH and Uppsala University.
More information and registration at:

Thursday March 16
Cambridge Climate Lecture Series
18.30-20.00 at Trinity College, Cambridge University, UK
Panel Discussion on COP21 to Zero Global Emissions w. Bryony Worthington, Anthony Hobley, Kevin Anderson, Martin Rees.
More information at:

Thursday March 9
Cambridge Climate Lecture Series
19.00-21.00 at Trinity College, Cambridge University, UK
Paris, climate and surrealism: how numbers reveal an alternate reality – A lecture by Kevin Anderson
More information at:

Wednesday February 22
Sustainability Talk with Kevin Anderson
Campus Gotland, Sweden
More information at:

Monday February 20
EnvironmentAle with Kevin Anderson
Scandic Hotel, Stockholm
More information at:

Thursday February 16
Open Lecture: Climate Change and 2 Degrees: Is the Parisian Emperor Naked?
17.00-18.15, Hamberggsalen, Villavägen 16, Uppsala
As a part of the annual meeting of “Svenska Metereologiska Sällskapet”
Registration required, by Monday the 14th of feb at the latest. Email Matthias Mohr
at (Cellphone: 076-778 52 27)

Tuesday February 7
Medan klockan tickar – En teaterföreställning om klimatet
15-17, Kollaboratoriet Uppsala, Östra Ågatan 19, Uppsala
More information and tickets at:

Saturday February 4
Public Lecture with Kevin Anderson: Challening times ahead – the implications of the paris agreement for the toursist industry
10.00-12.00, IOGT-NTO-gården, Klara Södra Kyrkogata 20, by the central station in Stockholm
Registration and more information at:

Thursday November 24, 2016
Public Seminar: Accelerating towards Paris – how informed action and hope can overcome despair
16.15-18.00, Stockholm Environmental Institute, Linnegatan 87D, Stockholm
A public seminar with Zennström Professor Kevin Anderson, Political Economist Andrew Simms, the Swedish Climate Ambassador Lars Ronnås and political expert Fredrik Hannerz. An event co-hosted at Stockholm Environment Institute. Read more here.

Friday November 11, 2016kevin-11-nov
From Morrocco to Uppsala: Follow the climate negotiations live with Kevin Anderson and guests
16.00-17.30, Uppsala City Library, Svartbäcksgatan 17, Uppsala (Mallan Lecture hall)
More information here:

Wednesday November 2, 2016
Lunch Lecture with Kevin Anderson – From Oil Worker to Climate Academic
Organized by UTN and UTNARM. Limited seats available. Primarily for students.
12-13, Siegbahn Lecture hall
More information at:

Wednesday October 26, 2016
Delivering on the Paris 1,5 and 2 degree goals – Opening address by Kevin Anderson at SLU conference on Future Agriculture
9.15 at Norra Latin, Stockholm
Watch the recording here:
More information at:

Tuesday October 25, 2016
Public Lecture with Professor Riley Dunlap
Riley Dunlap, Regents Professor of Sociology at Oklahoma State University will give a public lecture with the title: How climate change became controversial – Examining the denial movement.
Time, Venue and room TBA.
More information at:

Thursday October 13, 2016
CCL Seminar with Dr. Charlie Wilson
15.15-17.00, CEMUS/CSD Uppsala, Villavägen 16, Uppsla
More information at:

Thursday October 13, 2016kevin-bob-225x300
Climate Change Leadership Symposium with Professor Kevin Anderson and Bob Massie at SLU
12.15-14.00, Lecture Hall Audhumbla, VHC hus/building 5, SLU
Watch the recording here:

Wednesday October 12, 2016
Symposium: Finding our Way in the Dark – Pathways in the Shadow of Climate Change
A half day symposium organized by CEMUS and the Sigtuna Foundation where artists, scholars and actors from a variety of fields, with a wide range of experiences and perspectives, will share their ideas and on how to find our way towards a more humble and safe trajectory for our species and the more-than-human-world on planet earth.
W. Kevin Anderson, Ulf Danielsson, Hanna Wetterstrand, Jonas Gren and Helena Granström.
12.00-17.00, Sigtunastiftelsen, Sigtuna
More information and registration at:

Monday, September 5 2016
Public Workshop: Climate Change Leadership in Practice
15.00-17.00, Uppsala Learning Lab
An interactive and participatory afternoon event open to the public. A chance to learn about, discuss and contribute to a conversation about solutions to the challenges climate change, together with renowned climate scientist, practitioners and students engaged in tackling and developing novel solutions to climate change.
Venue to be announced. More information here.

Wednesday, August 31 2016
Meet-and-Greet with Kevin Anderson
19.00-20.30 at Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala.
Doreen Stabinsky (the first Zennström Visiting Professor) and Kevin Anderson will co-host this event which will include drinks, snacks and a chance to meet others engaged in research, education and initiatives addressing climate change in Uppsala and beyond.

Wednesday, August 31 2016
Uppsala University lecture in Climate Change Leadership with Kevin Anderson
10.00-12.00 in Hambergsalen, Villavägen 16, Uppsala.
More information and recording of the lecture here.

Wednesday, July 6, 2016
Almedalen Seminar: Now that we have the Paris Agreement on climate change – what next?
To reach the Paris Agreement on climate change will require immediate and significant reductions in greenhouse gas pollution, getting to zero emissions globally from burning of fossil fuels by sometime between 2030 and 2050. How can this be done? Views from national to local levels.
W. Doreeen Stabinsky, Johan Kuylenstierna, Anders Wijkman, Folke Tersman, Linea Engström and Eva Krutmeijer (moderator).
9.30-10.15, Sal E22, Almedalsbiblioteket, Cramérgatan 5, Visby, Sweden
More information at:

January 25, 2016
Fika and conversation – Creating a platform for engagement on climate change in Uppsala
Warmly welcome to a first meeting to engage in the idea of creating a platform for engagement on climate change in Uppsala, sprung out of the engagement and collaboration between students and faculty from Uppsala university and SLU that attended COP21. Friday January 25, 15.30-17. [Read more]

January 22, 2016
Get-together of climate change researchers in Uppsala
Warmly welcome to an informal get-together of climate change researchers in Uppsala on Friday January 22, 15-17. [Read more here]

January 18, 2016
Open Lecture with Doreen Stabinsky – Education, Sustainable Development and the Challenges of Climate Change. Monday January 18, 18-20. [Read more here]


December, 2015
Uppsala University’s student delegation and Zennström Visiting Professor Doreen Stabinsky are reporting live from the climate change negotiations in Paris. Stay tuned at:

The will also be a number of events in Uppsala where the delegation shares insights and reflections during and after the negotiations. The full program can be found here.

November – Uppsala Climate Month, 2015
November was Uppsala Climate Month! A number of interesting lectures and open events were organised in Uppsala. The Uppsala University Student Delegation for the climate change negotiations composed a calendar of the events leading up to Paris.

Sunday November 15, 2015
Run 4 Your Life
An afternoon and evening celebrating stories and experiences about climate change, in connection to the Run for your life project, a relay race from the arctic to Paris. In Uppsala and at Uppsala Stadsteater. More information at:

Thursday November 5, 2015
Open Lecture and conversation with Doreen Stabinsky: Education, Sustainable Development and the challenges of Climate Change
Organized by The Swedish National Committee for Geography & Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi (SSAG). Registration required. More information at:
13.00-16.00 Beijersalen , Royal Academy of Sciences, Lilla Frescativägen 4A, Stockholm

Thursday October 29, 2015
Lunch Lecture organized by Utnarm with Zennström Visiting Professor in Climate Change Leadership, Doreen Stabinsky
Doreen will bring a delegation of students from UU to the big climate conference in Paris in December. Something she will speak more about during the lecture.
More information at:
12.00-13.15 Siegbahnsalen, Ångströms Laboratory, Ulleråker, Uppsala

Wednesday October 28, 2015
UU delegation COP21 meeting
The road to Paris continues. Come join the conversation and preparations.
19.00-21.00 Venue TBA, Earth Sciences Building, Villavägen 16, Uppsala

Wednesday October 28, 2015
Climate Change Leadership Symposium Fall 2015: 2°C or not 2°C – Understanding impacts of temperature rise due to global warming
A symposium hosted by Zennström Visiting Professor Doreen Stabinsky, with contributions from researchers from different scientific discplines on the impacts of a 2°C world.
Presentations, pictures and recordings of the symposium can be found here:
14.00-17.00 Hambergssalen , Department of Earth Sciences, Villavägen 16, Uppsala

Thursday October 22, 2015
UU delegation COP21 Fika
The Road to Paris continues. Warmly welcome to join and learn more from the large group of students planning to go to the climate change negotiations in Paris, accompanied ny Zennström visiting professor Doreen Stabinsky. This time we will connect with the five students who are in Bonn with Doreen for the last preperatory meeting before Paris.
19.00-21.00 Skåne lecture hall (2nd story), Earth Sciences Building, Villavägen 16, Uppsala

Wednesday September 29, 2015
UU delegation COP21 Fika
The road to Paris continues. Guest this afternoon was Climate and Energy Expert Niclas Hällström from What Next Forum.
16.00-17.30, CSD/CEMUS Library, Earth Sciences Building, Villavägen 16, Uppsala

Friday September 25, 2015
Seminar: Prospects for the Climate Change Negotiations in Paris – The Role of Leadership
For more information and documentation from the event, visit:
10.00-15.00, Ekmanssalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 14, Uppsala

Wednesday September 23, 2015
UU delegation COP21 Fika
The road to Paris has begun. This COP-fika brought up some key issues in the upcoming climate change negotiations COP21.
16.00-17.00, CSD/CEMUS Library, Earth Sciences Building, Villavägen 16, Uppsala

Friday September 18, 2015
First meeting for the UU delegation to Paris
A first delegation meeting where we went over the logistics around the Paris COP and the work together over the fall leading up to the negotiations. See picture from the meeting here. To get involved or for more information, join the facebook group.
16.00-18.00, CSD/CEMUS Library, Earth Sciences Building, Villavägen 16, Uppsala

Monday, March 23, 2015
Inauguration and first annual Uppsala Lecture in Climate Change Leadership
Inauguration and first Uppsala University Lecture in Climate Change Leadership with Professor Dooreen Stabinsky. More information at:
16.30-18.30, Main University Building, Sal X